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Moorea course offers students transformative field research experience

Thu, 03/23/2017 - 10:05
Image:  Photograph taken in the ocean with view of Moorea island mountains Date:  Thursday, March 23, 2017 - 10:00 Legacy:  section header item:  Date:  Thursday, March 23, 2017 - 10:00 headline_position:  Top Left headline_color_style:  Normal headline_width:  Long caption_color_style:  Normal caption_position:  Bottom Left

Are you ready to explore baby’s genome?

Wed, 03/15/2017 - 11:08
Doctor's hands and a baby's foot during newborn genomic screening

When you have a day-old baby, a nurse or a phlebotomist performs a heel stick to take a few drops of blood from your infant and sends it off to a state lab for a battery of tests. Most of the time, you never hear about the results because your child is fortunate enough to not have a rare disease, such as cystic fibrosis or sickle cell disease, or any of the dozens of conditions for which most states screen. You, as a parent, may not even remember hearing about newborn screening.

Newborn screening is mandatory in most states, including California, unless parents refuse for religious or other reasons. Screening is generally accepted because it is only performed for conditions where measures are available to save the baby’s life or mitigate the harms of such conditions, if found early enough—and where, without screening, the disease would not be clinically evident and so would likely not be recognized until too late. However, now that scientists have developed methods for sequencing the entire genome, what would happen if states began incorporating genome sequencing to find out more about baby’s health? How would that work? What should parents learn about their baby’s genome? What shouldn’t they?

Steven Brenner, a professor in the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, is part of a national consortium of researchers and doctors studying the ins and outs of potentially using genome sequencing for newborn health screenings and beyond. 

Called NSIGHT, the consortium includes four NIH grants and spans multiple institutions, including 4 lead institutions:

  • University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)
  • University of North Carolina School of Medicine
  • Brigham and Women’s Hospital/ Boston Children’s Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine
  • University of California San Diego Rady Children’s Institute for Genomic Medicine

The group published an overview of their current and future research in the journal Pediatrics  last month. Their studies are working to address using genome sequencing in three clinical scenarios:

  • Screening: to test healthy newborns for preventable or treatable conditions that genetic sequencing could detect or help confirm.
  • Diagnostic: to find the specific genetic causes of congenital anomalies or unexplained illnesses in babies admitted to neonatal intensive care units.
  • Predictive: to explore the entire genome of the child, as a resource for health care throughout the course of the child’s life.

In collaboration with researchers at UCSF and the California Department of Public Health, Brenner is a part of the group working on the screening scenario, with research in computational genomics. The group is creating the tools needed to analyze the genome for the dozens of metabolic disorders that are now a part of California’s newborn screening program. The state has archived residual dried blood spot samples from infants since 1982. The group focused on a subset of the archive—samples collected from approximately 4 million babies from 2005-2013—analyzing blood from the 1,500 babies in that group who had an inherited metabolic disorder identified by screening. At first it was not clear that enough intact DNA could be obtained from the tiny dried blood spots on the archived filter paper, but as Jennifer Puck of UCSF said, “It is remarkable that the sequence quality obtained from this material was equivalent to sequences from fresh blood samples.” Puck is co-principal investigator for the grant and leader of the UCSF DNA extraction laboratory.

From all this material and multiple DNA databases that serve as a reference tool, Brenner’s group aims to sort out the gene variants involved in the disorders and assess what roles they play. “The metabolic disorders are amongst the best understood genetic diseases, which makes them a promising set of disorders to explore with genomic sequencing,” said Brenner. “Our results are showing both unexpected limitations as well as potentially lifesaving applications of the genomic technology in screening.”

This NSIGHT consortium will work with parents and conduct genomic sequencing on newborns to develop evidence that may support guidelines for whether and how this new technology could be effectively and appropriately incorporated into newborn screening or the care of newborns.

In addition to the lead sites, NSIGHT includes researchers and administrators from the National Institutes of Health (the National Human Genome Research Institute, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences); RTI International; University of California, Berkeley; American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics; Harvard Medical School; University of Illinois-Chicago School of Public Health; California Department of Public Health; Oregon Health & Sciences University; University of Washington; and UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital San Francisco.

Related Information

 

Image: Doctor's hands and a baby's foot during newborn genomic screeningDate: Wednesday, March 15, 2017 - 11:15Legacy: section header item:  Date: Wednesday, March 15, 2017 - 11:15headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

EBI, Shell sign $25 million partnership to fund new energy tech research

Wed, 03/15/2017 - 10:32
Attendees at a signing ceremony.

Attendees at the signing ceremony at EBI. From left to right: Melanie Loots, Isaac Cann, Liesl Schindler, John Coates, Ajay Mehta, Paul Alivisatos, Yuri Sebregts. (UC Berkeley photos by Peg Skorpinski)

UC Berkeley’s Energy Biosciences Institute has entered into a five-year research agreement with Shell International Exploration and Production to fund research that meets the growing demand for energy in ways that are economically, environmentally and socially responsible.

The agreement is to spend up to $25 million over five years on fundamental research in the areas of global energy transition and new energy technology. The agreement will make EBI a global leader in energy technology research to make next-generation fuels a competitive, sustainable alternative to fossil fuels.

“The Shell agreement brings the first of EBI’s new sponsors into the institute and adds a new dimension to the research focus incorporating research in material sciences, electrochemistry, and computational analysis,” said John Coates, director of the EBI and a Berkeley professor of microbiology.

EBI and Shell are now accepting proposals to initially pursue fundamental research in the areas of solar energy transformation, advanced energy storage and novel synthesis routes to create new products, and to leverage new capabilities in computational material science and biosciences and bioengineering.

The collaboration will also focus on creating new energy technology that will enable fuels derived from sustainable sources to be readily available alongside conventional fossil fuels in the market. EBI’s research focus to date has been on enabling feedstock availability — a goal shared with Shell, which currently holds 50 percent equity in Raízen, the world´s largest producer of one of the lowest-CO2 biofuels available today.

Read the complete story at the UC Berkeley News site.

 

Image: Attendees at a signing ceremony.Date: Wednesday, March 15, 2017 - 10:30byline: By Brett Israel, UC Berkeley Media relations Legacy: section header item:  Date: Wednesday, March 15, 2017 - 10:30headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

Climate change has the potential to alter natural selection, study finds

Tue, 03/07/2017 - 15:47
Image: Blue-tailed damselflyDate: Tuesday, March 7, 2017 - 15:45byline: By Brett Israel, UC Berkeley Public AffairsLegacy: section header item:  Date: Tuesday, March 7, 2017 - 15:45headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

In Memoriam: Irma Adelman

Mon, 02/27/2017 - 12:51
Image: Image of professor Irma AdelmanDate: Monday, February 27, 2017 - 12:45Legacy: section header item:  Date: Monday, February 27, 2017 - 12:45headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

Beahrs Environmental Leadership Program to welcome Chern-Simons Fellows for Energy & Climate Change

Mon, 02/13/2017 - 10:38
Image: A building at the Lawrence Berkeley National LabDate: Monday, February 13, 2017 - 10:30Legacy: section header item:  Date: Monday, February 13, 2017 - 10:30headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

Professors Banfield and Seed Chosen as CZ Biohub Investigators

Wed, 02/08/2017 - 11:46
Professors Seed and Banfield each are recieving large grants for medical research.

Thirteen UC Berkeley faculty, seven of them women, are among 47 new investigators chosen by the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub to receive up to $1.5 million each over the next five years to conduct cutting-edge biomedical research — with no strings attached.

CNR faculty members Jill Banfield and Kimberley Seed are among the group.

The investigator awards are the first individual grants by the CZ Biohub as it seeks to foster unconventional scientific exploration and encourage researchers to invent new tools to accelerate the pace of discovery.

The CZ Biohub was established in September 2016 with $600 million over 10 years from Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg and his wife, pediatrician Priscilla Chan, and operates as an independent nonprofit medical research organization collaborating with UC Berkeley, Stanford University and UC San Francisco to fund research. Its goal is to harness science, technology and human capacity to cure, prevent or manage all disease during our children’s lifetime.

“CZ Biohub investigators share our vision of a planet without disease,” said Joseph DeRisi, co-president of CZ Biohub and a professor of biochemistry and biophysics at UCSF. “To realize this vision, we are giving some of the world’s most creative and brilliant researchers access to groundbreaking technology and the freedom to pursue high-risk research. CZ Biohub investigators will challenge traditional thinking in pursuit of radical discoveries that will make even the most stubborn and deadly diseases treatable.”

Jill Banfield, a professor of earth and planetary science and of environmental science, policy and management, explores the medical, industrial and ecological significance of newly found microorganisms. Her previous work has uncovered a vast diversity of microorganisms that depend on coexisting microbial community members for most core metabolic resources, revealing two major evolutionary radiations, one in bacteria and the other in Archaea.

Kimberley Seed, an assistant professor of plant and microbial biology, carries out epidemiologic studies of the interactions between bacteriophages and Vibrio cholera, some strains of which cause cholera, in samples obtained from cholera outbreaks to enhance understanding of how these viruses shape the communities of these pathogens and affect infectivity. She will also determine how microclimates impact phage-host interactions.

Six of UC Berkeley’s new investigators, including Banfield, are senior faculty. Each will receive $1.5 million over five years to pursue their research, with the freedom to change direction if they desire — an option not allowed by most research grants.

The seven other investigators, including Seed, are younger faculty, and will receive half the amount, $750,000 over five years, with a similar flexibility.

“The CZ Biohub has chosen some of Berkeley’s best and most innovative researchers, who offer an amazing breadth of expertise,” said UC Berkeley Chancellor Nicholas Dirks. “This first cohort of investigators illustrates the potential and promise of the CZ Biohub to push the boundaries of biomedical research, and to accelerate the development of breakthrough scientific and medical advancements, applications and therapeutics for the public’s benefit.”

The 47 investigator awards, totaling $54 million over five years, also go to 15 faculty at UCSF and 19 at Stanford. They will complement the CZ Biohub’s large-scale collaborative projects, including the Infectious Disease Initiative and the Cell Atlas.

“The 47 CZ Biohub investigators we’re introducing today are quite literally inventing the future of life science research,” said Stephen Quake, co-president of CZ Biohub and a professor of bioengineering and applied physics at Stanford. “The CZ Biohub is distinguished by our emphasis on technology and engineering, and our researchers are inventing tools to accelerate science for the good of humanity.”

For more information and a list of all UC Berkeley investigators, visit the UC Berkeley News Center. 

 

 

Image: Professors Seed and Banfield each recieved amazing grants for science researchDate: Wednesday, February 8, 2017 - 11:45byline: By Robert Sanders, UC Berkeley Media Relations Legacy: section header item:  Date: Wednesday, February 8, 2017 - 11:45headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

CRISPR research institute expands into agriculture, microbiology

Thu, 01/26/2017 - 13:45
Image: Illustration showing people, beakers, and cropsDate: Thursday, January 26, 2017 - 13:45Legacy: section header item:  Date: Thursday, January 26, 2017 - 13:45headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

UC Research Forest Lands Expand with Donation

Fri, 01/20/2017 - 09:11

BERKELEY - The first of three large land donations from Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) to the University of California has been officially transferred, expanding UC’s research forest lands by 1,459 acres.

Named the “Grouse Ridge Forest” after the dominant feature of the property, the land is located on three parcels in the headwaters of the Yuba River in Nevada County. In conjunction with the land donation to UC, a conservation easement was conveyed to the Bear Yuba Land Trust (BYLT), ensuring the permanent protection of the forest land and important wildlife habitat there.

“As California’s forests experience increased stresses from droughts, beetles, fires, and climate change, we need more “living laboratories” to learn how we can increase the resiliency of these critical watersheds over the next century,” said Bill Stewart, forestry specialist and co-director of the UC Berkeley Center for Forestry (CFF). “This new addition of  research forest land is valuable as another site along a north-south transect of the Sierra Nevada that ensures that research results are broadly applicable and not just valid in one specific location.”   

The University of California now has 6,452 acres of research forests, which are managed by the Center for Forestry. Through research, education and public service, the CFF continues to improve scientific understanding of the interconnected role of California’s forests and state watersheds, renewable wood products, fish and wildlife habitat, scenic and recreational opportunities, and climate benefits. 

These new lands will allow for increased research on the effects of climate change on forest ecosystems, expanded experimentation of forest-management techniques, and broadened outreach efforts to students of all levels, researchers, and the interested public. 

“The importance of research forests as a space for studies on both mitigation of and adaptation to climate change was highlighted again this week with the announcement that we had just had the hottest year on record, for the third year in a row,” said J. Keith Gilless, CNR dean and professor of forest economics.

This is the first time UC has owned a forest property while another entity holds the conservation easement. “The Land Trust is excited for the opportunity to be a partner with the University of California in this endeavor,” said BYLT Executive Director Marty Coleman Hunt in an announcement made by the organization in December. “The forest has been a habitat for wildlife like mountain lion, deer and coyote and will remain so for as long as the forest can support them. As the forest changes over time, the University of California will study how nature adapts, and how the impact of humans can harm or benefit the natural processes.”

The land donation became official with the close of escrow in December 2016. It was originally approved by the Pacific Forest and Watershed Lands Stewardship Council in 2004 as part of PG&E’s bankruptcy settlement, with the goal of ensuring that over 140,000 acres of California's lakes and watershed lands are conserved for the public good and to serve California's young people.

Two more forests have also been pledged to UC by PG&E and are expected to be officially transferred over the next few years: one along Marble Creek in eastern Shasta County and another near along the Bear River that is the dividing line between Placer County and Nevada County. 

Once complete, these three donations will more than double the number of acres of UC research forest lands.  

More information about the Grouse Ridge Forest Conservation Easement can be found on the Bear Yuba Land Trust Website.

Image: Image of a forestDate: Friday, January 20, 2017 - 09:15byline: Julie Van Scoy, College of Natural ResourcesLegacy: section header item:  Date: Friday, January 20, 2017 - 09:15headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

Climate change could kill off parasites, destabilizing ecosystems

Thu, 01/12/2017 - 12:46

Photogenic animals, from polar bears to people, aren’t the only creatures under threat from global climate change. A new review led by UC Berkeley suggests the phenomenon threatens parasites with extinction, which could have big consequences for ecosystems.

The vast majority of research into parasites and environment change focuses on how hosts, particularly humans, will be harmed. Few studies have addressed how the loss of parasite biodiversity may affect other aspects of host health, ecosystem connectedness and health  and biodiversity as a whole. Previous research suggests that parasites are up to 10 times more vulnerable to extinction than are their hosts.

In the new study, the researchers suggest that parasites are as prone to extinction due to climate change as any other taxonomic group. The study predicts that losing parasites could destabilize ecosystems in many ways, such as by increasing more virulent disease or by altering the food web or changing host physiology. The study found that parasites in hosts with variable internal temperatures, parasites of large-bodied hosts, host-specific parasites and parasites with complex life cycles will likely be the most vulnerable to extinction due to climate change.

“This is the first comprehensive review of how climate change may affect parasite biodiversity, from the point of view of parasite conservation,” said Carrie Cizauskas, who led the research as a postdoctoral affiliate in the lab of Wayne Getz, a professor of wildlife ecology in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management. Colin Carlson, a graduate student in the same department, is co-lead author of the review.

The research was published today in the journal Royal Society Open Science.

Previous work from this group has called for further research into parasite vulnerability from parasites’ perspectives, rather than primarily focusing on hosts, and also outlined ways to potentially conserve parasites. In the new study, the authors outline actionable items for researching the vulnerability of parasites. A forthcoming review from Cizauskas and Carlson attempts to quantify these parasite extinction risks using existing data and modeling.

The team outlines a protocol for identifying vulnerable parasites by a set of key risk factors, including host specificity, parasite life cycle complexity and climatic tolerance. The next step involves identifying important unanswered questions in parasite ecology, such as how host phylogeny predicts parasite extinction, or whether parasite extinctions will be clustered in particular ecosystems. Finally, they suggest proposing how ecological disciplines may be used to identify gaps in parasite research data.

“Ultimately, our goal is for this review to act as a catalyst for further research efforts and discussions regarding the important and little-addressed topic of parasite vulnerability in the face of climate change,” Cizauskas said.

Read the story at the source.

 

Image: A parasite by the name of Schistorchis stenosomaDate: Thursday, January 12, 2017 - 12:45byline: By Brett Israel, UC Berkeley Media relations Legacy: section header item:  Date: Friday, January 20, 2017 - 12:45headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

Global warming hiatus disproved — again

Thu, 01/05/2017 - 16:08
Melting ice bergs

A controversial paper published two years ago that concluded there was no detectable slowdown in ocean warming over the previous 15 years — widely known as the “global warming hiatus” — has now been confirmed using independent data in research led by researchers from UC Berkeley and Berkeley Earth, a non-profit research institute focused on climate change.

The 2015 analysis showed that the modern buoys now used to measure ocean temperatures tend to report slightly cooler temperatures than older ship-based systems, even when measuring the same part of the ocean at the same time. As buoy measurements have replaced ship measurements, this had hidden some of the real-world warming.

After correcting for this “cold bias,” researchers with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration concluded in the journal Science that the oceans have actually warmed 0.12 degrees Celsius (0.22 degrees Fahrenheit) per decade since 2000, nearly twice as fast as earlier estimates of 0.07 degrees Celsius per decade. This brought the rate of ocean temperature rise in line with estimates for the previous 30 years, between 1970 and 1999.

This eliminated much of the global warming hiatus, an apparent slowdown in rising surface temperatures between 1998 and 2012. Many scientists, including the International Panel on Climate Change, acknowledged the puzzling hiatus, while those dubious about global warming pointed to it as evidence that climate change is a hoax.

Climate change skeptics attacked the NOAA researchers and a House of Representatives committee subpoenaed the scientists’ emails. NOAA agreed to provide data and respond to any scientific questions but refused to comply with the subpoena, a decision supported by scientists who feared the “chilling effect” of political inquisitions.

The new study, which uses independent data from satellites and robotic floats as well as buoys, concludes that the NOAA results were correct. The paper was published Jan. 4 in the online, open-access journal Science Advances.

“Our results mean that essentially NOAA got it right, that they were not cooking the books,” said lead author Zeke Hausfather, a graduate student in UC Berkeley’s Energy and Resources Group.

Long-term climate records

Hausfather said that years ago, mariners measured the ocean temperature by scooping up a bucket of water from the ocean and sticking a thermometer in it. In the 1950s, however, ships began to automatically measure water piped through the engine room, which typically is warm. Nowadays, buoys cover much of the ocean and that data is beginning to supplant ship data. But the buoys report slightly cooler temperatures because they measure water directly from the ocean instead of after a trip through a warm engine room...

Read the complete story at the UC Berkeley News site.

Image: Melting ice bergsDate: Thursday, January 5, 2017 - 16:00byline: Robert Sanders, UC Berkeley Media RelationsLegacy: section header item:  Date: Thursday, January 5, 2017 - 16:00headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

Compact CRISPR systems found in some of world’s smallest microbes

Thu, 12/22/2016 - 09:48
A cryo-electron tomography image of an ultra-small bacteria similar

A cryo-electron tomography image of an ultra-small bacteria similar to the ones found to have small, compact CRISPR-Cas systems potentially suitable for laboratory gene-editing. The bacteria is less than 200 nanometers across (bar is 100 nanometers). The three objects near the bacteria are viruses, or phages, that attack bacteria. (Banfield lab image)

UC Berkeley scientists have discovered simple CRISPR systems similar to CRISPR-Cas9 — a gene-editing tool that has revolutionized biology — in previously unexplored bacteria that have eluded efforts to grow them in the laboratory.

The new systems are highly compact, befitting their presence in some of the smallest life forms on the planet. If these systems can be re-engineered like CRISPR-Cas9, their small size could make them easier to insert into cells to edit DNA, expanding the gene-editing toolbox available to researchers and physicians.

“These are particularly interesting because the key protein in these CRISPR systems is approximately the same as Cas9, but is not Cas9. It is part of a minimal system that has obvious potential for gene editing,” said Jill Banfield, a UC Berkeley professor of earth and planetary sciences and of environmental science, policy and management.

In CRISPR-Cas systems, the Cas protein is the scissors. When targeted to a specific sequence of DNA, the Cas protein binds and severs double-stranded DNA. The new discovery nearly doubles the number of simple and compact CRISPR-Cas systems potentially useful as laboratory and biomedical tools.

“The important thing here is that we found some of these CRISPR systems in a major branch of the bacterial tree, opening the door to a whole new world of microbes that are not cultured in the lab, so we don’t really know what they are and what their habits are,” said co-author Jennifer Doudna, a UC Berkeley professor of molecular and cell biology and of chemistry and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. Both Doudna and Banfield are faculty scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

The team also found the first CRISPR-Cas9 system in some of the world’s smallest microbes: a nano-scale member of the archaea, which is a sister group to the bacteria.

The variety of uncultivable bacteria has only recently been recognized, in large part due to Banfield and her lab colleagues, who use metagenomic analysis to explore microbial diversity in exotic environments, from toxic pools in abandoned mines to the soil in Superfund contamination cleanup sites and the guts of premature infants. The majority of all bacterial life on the planet is basically unknown because these organisms cannot be cultivated in lab dishes, probably because they are symbionts and rely upon other microbes for nutrients needed to survive.

One of the new CRISPR proteins, dubbed CasY, was discovered in a massive group of recently recognized bacteria — what Banfield calls candidate phyla radiation (CPR) and which may contain half of all bacterial diversity — that live in geysers and in soil several feet underground. Another new one, CasX, was found in bacteria from known phyla living in groundwater and sediment. The two groups of nanoarchaea found to contain CRISPR-Cas9 were first described by Banfield from acid mine drainage.

Banfield, Doudna and their colleagues reported the findings today in the journal Nature.

Read the full story on the UC Berkeley News website. 

Image: Date: Thursday, December 22, 2016 - 09:45byline: Robert Sanders, UC Berkeley Media RelationsLegacy: section header item:  Date: Thursday, December 22, 2016 - 09:45headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

Stahl lab designs in vivo imaging system for investigating liver metabolism

Mon, 12/12/2016 - 10:00

Metabolic disorders are complex health problems, and with that complexity comes a necessity for dynamic models to study their causes and effects.

UC Berkeley researchers have designed an in vivo imaging system that can help them better study one metabolic disorder—fatty liver disease—in a real-time, non-invasive fashion. In vivo methods are those that can be performed in a living organism. While there have been ways to image fat uptake by other areas in the body, such as brown fat or the intestine, the location of the liver near many other fat-utilizing tissues has long posed a challenge.

When we eat a meal our blood gets an increase in fatty acids, the energy-rich molecules that are the building blocks of fats. Those fatty acids travel through the body’s circulation to many different tissues, including the liver, where they can be broken down and used for energy to perform the organ’s functions. However, when taken in at excessive levels, fatty acids can form deposits among the healthy tissue in the liver. This causes a condition called hepatosteatosis, or fatty liver disease.

In order to better understand hepatosteatosis, it is important to have a method for studying the fundamental mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism in the liver. In vivo imaging plays a major role in achieving that goal.

The imaging protocol is described in an article that appeared in the journal Gastroenterology in October. It builds on a method for fatty acid imaging already in use, but with several important alterations that heighten the clarity and accuracy of liver-specific images.

For these studies, laboratory mice are injected with a synthetic fat that is tagged with a molecule called luciferin. When these luciferin-fatty acid probes enter cells they release the luciferin, which in turn can produce light with the help of an enzyme from fireflies termed luciferase.

The innovation of first author Hyo Min Park, then a Ph.D. student in nutritional sciences and toxicology at UC Berkeley, came with breeding a new strain of mice that produce luciferase only in liver tissue. This adjustment ensures that the luminescence depicted in the images correlates to fat uptake solely by the liver.

“This system allows us a totally different approach for fatty acid flux studies,” said Hyo Min Park, who is now working for a biotech startup company he founded following graduation. He explains that current methods require sacrificing the animal in order to extract the liver and measure the amount of tagged fatty acids. For this reason, they are of limited value when studying a trend that requires monitoring across multiple time points in the same organism.

However, say that a group of researchers wants to measure the effect of a potential treatment over the course of one month. With Park’s method, they can measure fatty acid uptake every five or ten days in the same animals and track the effects during the entire period. The information garnered by continuous monitoring helps construct a more robust and detailed picture of cause and effect, one that is crucial during pre-clinical trials.

The article describes several findings made by Park and his colleagues using the new in vivo imaging method. In one 10-day trial, ingestion of fenofibrate, a medication currently used to treat high cholesterol and hyperlipidemia, resulted in a 40% increase in liver fatty acid uptake compared to control mice.

Now, that may seem counterproductive for shrinking the size of fat deposits in the liver - and that is because it is. Although fenofibrate has been known to increase the rate of fatty acid breakdown in the liver, the gross anatomy of the diseased livers would continue to appear pockmarked by fat deposits. The results from this trial indicate that this discrepancy could be partly explained by the observation that the drug itself causes increased fatty acid uptake to begin with.

“Previous studies demonstrated that fenofibrate increases beta oxidation and [fatty acid transporter] expression in the liver. But no one showed the effect of fenofibrate on hepatic fatty acid uptake increase in vivo,” Park explained. “After this experiment, I feel like I found a missing puzzle piece.”

In another trial performed by post-doctoral fellow Kim Russo and Lance Kriegsfeld, professor and vice chair of the UC Berkeley Department of Psychology, the in vivo system was used to monitor fatty acid uptake every hour for a 24-hr period. The results indicated that fatty acid uptake by the liver is altered across the day and night, suggesting a strong diurnal rhythm.

In addition to Park, Russo, and Kriegsfeld, study authors included Andreas Stahl, professor and chair of the Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology. Michael Park, undergraduate student in Microbial Biology, aided with experiments. Luminescent fatty acid probes were produced by Grigory Karateev and Elena Dubikovskaya from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne. This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health.

Image: fatty livers are larger and have more fat deposites than normal livers.Date: Monday, December 12, 2016 - 09:45byline: By Liza Raffi Legacy: section header item:  Date: Monday, December 12, 2016 - 09:45headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

Drones help monitor health of giant sequoias

Thu, 12/08/2016 - 12:35
Image: Todd Dawson looking through mask to see what drone seesDate: Thursday, December 8, 2016 - 12:30byline:  Robert Sanders, UC Berkeley Media RelationsLegacy: section header item:  Date: Thursday, December 8, 2016 - 12:30headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left

Professor Michael Freeling honored for pioneering work in plants

Thu, 12/08/2016 - 10:51
Michael Freeling

Professor Michael Freeling

UC Berkeley geneticist Michael Freeling has been awarded the McClintock Prize for Plant Genetics and Genome Studies for his fundamental contributions to the understanding of gene and genome biology in plants.

The prize, which recognizes scientific accomplishment over the course of a career, is awarded annually by the Maize Genetics Executive Committee, a professional organization for scientists and researchers working in the field of maize genetics. It is named in honor of Barbara McClintock, a distinguished geneticist and winner of the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

“The MGEC is excited to award the McClintock prize to Professor Freeling,” said Shawn Kaeppler, chair of the committee and a professor of agronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “He has been a leader in the maize genetics community throughout his career. His groundbreaking research on conserved non-coding sequences found in genomes across species, and fundamental work on gene content following genome duplication, has provided important insights into genome evolution and gene function. These discoveries are important in utilizing genome information to discover new biological mechanisms and to develop applied solutions important to the agricultural enterprise. His work on genome evolution and sequence conservation across species exemplifies the basic discoveries that we seek to recognize with the McClintock award.”

Freeling is a professor in the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology in the College of Natural Resources at Berkeley. He will receive this prize and deliver a scientific presentation at the Annual Maize Genetics Conference, March 9-12, 2017, in St. Louis, Missouri.

“I have the highest respect for the past recipients of this prize, and just having my name on the same page as McClintock’s is an honor,” Freeling said.

Freeling earned his Ph.D. in 1973 at Indiana University and immediately became a professor at Berkeley. In addition to teaching graduate and postdoctoral students, he taught “Genetics for Poets” to large classes for decades. He has mentored 25 doctoral students and 42 postdoctoral scholars. Freeling was also named a Guggenheim Fellow in 1980, and was elected to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 1994.

Freeling’s early work focused on gene regulation, anaerobic genes and transposons, but his research focus eventually pivoted to developmental genetics. By 2003 he had switched his efforts to plant comparative genomics and understanding evolutionary trends.

Learn more about the research at the Freeling Lab website.

Image: Michael FreelingDate: Thursday, December 8, 2016 - 10:45byline: Brett Israel, UC Berkeley Media relationsLegacy: section header item:  Date: Thursday, December 8, 2016 - 10:45headline_position: Top Leftheadline_color_style: Normalheadline_width: Longcaption_color_style: Normalcaption_position: Bottom Left